White Paper #1
Phosphate recovery by struvite or magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) crystallisation has
great potential provided that the separated crystals are not or only slightly contaminated (von
Münch and Barr, 2001) and can be handled on an industrial scale by minimizing production
of fines (Le Corre et al., 2007). MAP crystallisation can be applied in order to prevent scaling
problems (Doyle and Parsons, 2002), phosphate removal (Battistoni et al, 1997) or nitrogen
removal (Altinbas et al., 2002; Laridi et al., 2005).
To read the entire white paper, please submit the download form.